Caching the results of a PDO Query in Memcache

This is a quick example of code that will prepare a PDO statement and cache the results in Memcache.

It is easiest to use the two following sets of instructions to set up a LAMP environment that will handle the PHP, PDO, and Memcache packages that the code uses:

  1. How To Install Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP (LAMP) stack on Ubuntu
  2. How To Install and Use Memcache on Ubuntu 12.04


function db_connect() {
	global $memcache, $db;

	// Connect to the Memcache server
	$memcache = new Memcache();
	$memcache->pconnect('localhost', 11211);

	// Connect to the Database using PDO
	$host = "localhost";
	$dbname = "test";
	$user = "test";
	$pass = "test";

	try {
		$db = new PDO("mysql:host=$host;dbname=$dbname", $user, $pass);
	} catch (PDOException $e) {

function db_fetch_all($sql, $params = array(), $use_cache = true) {
	global $memcache, $db, $cache_expiration;

	$result = false;
	if ($use_cache) {
		// Generate a key for the cache
		$cache_key = md5($sql . serialize($params));
		$result = $memcache->get($cache_key);

	if (!$result) {
		// Cache Miss: Prepare the sql and recache it
		$sth = $db->prepare($sql);
		// This handles ? within a sql query
		// i.e. "SELECT id FROM example WHERE name = ?";
		$i = 0;
		foreach ($params as $param) {
		    $sth->bindParam(++$i, $param);

		// This handles :params within queries
		// "SELECT id FROM example WHERE name = :name";
		foreach ($params as $key => $value) {
		    // keys must be in the form :key within the query
		    $sth->bindParam($key, $value);

		$result = $sth->fetch(); // Fetch the entire result into an array
		// Cache expires in 10 seconds
                $cache_key = md5($sql . serialize($params));
		$cache_expiration = 10;
		$memcache->set($cache_key, serialize($result), MEMCACHE_COMPRESSED, $cache_expiration);

		echo "used mysql";
	} else {
		// Cache Hit
		echo "used memcache";

	return $result;

echo "Time: " . time() . "<br />";
if (class_exists("Memcache")) {

	// The query only works with ? as variables in the prepared statement
	$query = "SELECT id FROM example WHERE name = ?";
	$result = db_fetch_all($query, array("new_data"));
} else {
	echo "Memcache not installed :(";

2 thoughts on “Caching the results of a PDO Query in Memcache

  1. Hi, not sure your cache key logic is right — your MD5 is of the prepared statement, but *before* substitution of the placeholders. This means that two different queries would return the same potentially cached result!


  2. Hi Jason, good catch. There was an issue with the way that the cache key was generated if you had $use_cache set to false so I updated the code to create the MD5 after substitution. Thank you for finding that!


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